Production technology of grapes
Urdu Name Angoor
English Name Grapes
Botanical Name : Vitis vinifera cultivars
Plant Type: Deciduous
Growth Habit: Upright, requires support
Growth Rate: Fast
Its crop require long, warm, dry summers and cool winters for best development, required temprature is 15 to 42 centigrad
Selection of soil
Gravelly sands to heavy clays, from shallow to deep . However,poorly or light drained or highly alkaline soils should be avoided.
Grapes Prouning to cuttings
In winter prouning of grapes season has staered. We can made the cutting of this grapes wain. One-year old wood should be pruned and made the cutting
Cutting step are given bellow
- First of all when cutting season has started Grapes wain remove put in water tank for 2 to 3 houres (for this purpes the skin of wine remains save otherwise wines can dry particularly damegs of node)
- During winter season when wines are pruned cutting size shuld be 30 -40 cm long . A cutting should be round cut at proximal end (root side) and a slanting cut at the distal end (shoot side) . vine age shuld be one year for cutting. Thickness Cuttin of grapes wine like figure to thumb
3.These cuttings are bundled. There are 50 to 70 cuttings in one bundle. These cutting bundles have put in fertile soil for 2 to 3 weaks. After that cultivate it in the black polythen bages.
Others methods of propagation are layering and grafting. But cutting propegation methed is seccessfull than layering and grafting.
Meathod of plating
Whole size = Length 1.5 feet to 2feet
After dig the whole left it for 4 to 6 days for the passing of sunlight
After 6 days sprouting grapes can transplnt. Fill this whole 1:1:1 FYM, sand, whole soil respectvally and irrigate it
Mostly graps are cultivate in early spring season
Row to Row distance = 9 feet
Plant to Plant distance = 8 feet
No of plant per acre = 260 to 435
In commercial orchards of grapes 5 kg of FYM per plants for good production and Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizer should be applied during winter or early spring to maintain the plants.
Irrigation during flowering and ripening is not advised as it may delay ripening, reduces berry size and increases shedding. Recmanded water 2 time a week in summer, in winter one time a week.
Weed control through manually, chamically, machanically
Training and Pruning
Pruning gives the vines proper shape and a size which facilitates insect and disease control.
Method of training , pruning given bellow
- 1.Head System(main stem is trained straight upward) this system is doing seccessfully in pakistan.
- Cane System(4-6 fruit trunks are raised)
- Cordon System (main trunk is 2.5 – 3.5 m long and trained horizontally)
Varities in pakistan
Important varities of grapes are given below.
- Thompson (Seedless)
- Perlette (Seedless)
- Red Globe (Seeded)
- Cardinal (Seeded)
- Kings ruby (Seedless)
- Narc black (Seeded)
- Crimson (Seedless)
- Flame (Seedless)
- Sultana (Seedless)
- Muscatil (Seeded)
These 10 varities of grapes can grow mostly all pakistan region except balochistan.
A number of varieties of grapes are grown Balochistan given bellow
The most famous are, Haita,Kishmishi. Shundokhani, Sahibi and Shekhali are commonly grown popular commercial varieties in Quetta, Pishin,Killa Abdullah, Mastung, Kalat, Loralai and Zhob districts.
In Potohar region was one of the selected regions where scientists recommended varieties like ‘flame seedless’, King’s Ruby’, Perlett and NARC black.
Insects Pest And Diseases:
The grape leaf hopper: It is the common insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves apear in the spring until they drop in the fall. Spray of pesticide
Powdery mildew is a fungul disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant such as leaves, blossom, fruit and young shoots may be affected. White patches appearance may be noted on leaves young shoots; blossom fail to set fruit. Control fungicid spray as metalyxal and mencozeb 100gm in 50 liter water
Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode may become a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in adecline in vine vigor and reduction in yields To control it use resistant rootstocks and fumigate the soil.
Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre input
|Sr no||Atom name||Cost of atom||Total Atom||Total input|
|1||No of plants||50 Rs per plant||400×50||20000|
|2||No of road||300 per||150×400||56000|
|3||Iron cable||180 per kg||80 Kg ×180||14400|
Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre out put
|Mature grapes prodection||Total grapes plant||Total weight in kg||Cost per kg||Total|
|15to20kg per plant||400×20